EFL teacher David Appleyard
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English Irregular Verbs

Traditional style alphabetical listing
A to F S to W
G to R Inflection Patterns


A to F

Infinitive / Basic Form Past Simple Past Participle
abide abode abode
arise arose arisen
awake awoke, awaked awoken, awaked
be was, were been
bear bore borne, born
beat beat beaten
become became become
befall befell befallen
beget begot begotten
begin began begun
behold beheld beheld
bend bent bent
bereave bereave bereaved, bereft
beseech besought besought
bet betted, bet betted, bet
bid (command) bade bidden
bid (offer) bid bid
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten
bleed bled bled
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast broadcast
build built built
burn burned, burnt burned, burnt
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
can could been able
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
chide chid chidden
choose chose chosen
cleave clove, cleft cloven, cleft
cling clung clung
clothe clothed, clad clothed, clad
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
crow crowed, crew crowed
cut cut cut
dare dared, durst dared, durst
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamed, dreamt dreamed, dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelled, dwelt dwelled, dwelt
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbear forbore forborne
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
forsake forsook forsaken
freeze froze frozen

G to R

Infinitive / Basic Form Past Simple Past Participle
get got got, gotten
gild gilded, gilt gilded, gilt
gird girded, girt girded, girt
give gave given
go went gone (and still absent);
been (and returned)
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hanged, hung hanged, hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hew hewed hewed, hewn
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
knit knitted, knit knitted, knit
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leaned, leant leaned, leant
leap leaped, leapt leaped, leapt
learn learned, learnt learned, learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lighted, lit lighted, lit
lose lost lost
make made made
may might
mean meant meant
meet met met
mow mowed mowed, mown
must had to had to
ought  —
pay paid paid
put put put
read  /ri:d/ read  /red/ read  /red/
rend rent rent
rid rid rid
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run

S to W

Infinitive / Basic Form Past Simple Past Participle
saw sawed sawed, sawn
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewed, sewn
shake shook shaken
shall should
shear sheared, shore sheared, shorn
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shoe shoed, shod shoed, shod
shoot shot shot
show showed showed, shown
shrink shrank shrunk
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank sunk
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slunk slunk
slit slit slit
smell smelled, smelt smelled, smelt
smite smote smitten
sow sowed sowed, sown
speak spoke spoken
speed speeded, sped speeded, sped
spell spelled, spelt spelled, spelt
spend spent spent
spill spilled, spilt spilled, spilt
spin spun spun
spit spat spat
split split split
spoil spoiled, spoilt spoiled, spoilt
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
stink stank, stunk stunk
strew strewed strewed, strewn
stride strode stridden
strike struck struck
string strung strung
strive strove striven
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swelled, swollen
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
thrive thrived, throve thrived, thriven
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden, trod
understand understood understood
undertake undertook undertaken
wake waked, woke waked, woken
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
weep wept wept
wet wetted, wet wetted, wet
will would
win won won
wind wound wound
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written